Firuzabad – an ancient Persian city located in the south of modern Iran. The main historical monuments of the Sassanid era are concentrated in Firuzabad, so the city is a candidate for inclusion in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage List. The city has an extremely ancient history. Even before our era, there was a fortified city on the site of modern Firuzabad, which was destroyed by the troops of Alexander the Great. Only in the third century AD Firuzabad was restored by Ardashir I, the first king of the Sassanid dynasty. Firuzabad existed for four centuries and was sacked during the Arab invasions of the seventh century. Today, Firouzabad is a small town built on ancient ruins. The main attractions of the city are the Ardashir Palace, the fortress of Ghalye-dohtar and the temple of fire worshipers in the old city – the age of the latter is more than two thousand years. This is a unique historical heritage that attracts many tourists to Firuzabad.
Kazerun is located in a small valley, protected from the west and east by parallel mountain ranges stretching from northwest to southeast. In the south, the valley rests on Lake Parishan, in the north it narrows, turning into small gorges. During the time of the Sassanids (224-651), an old road passed near modern Kazerun, connecting Persia (Fars) with Susiana (Khuzestan) and Ctesiphon. The city itself arose immediately after the Arab conquests. Throughout the Middle Ages, Kazerun became famous as the birthplace of many scientists. In 1236, Kutbuddin ash-Shirazi, a famous Persian mathematician, astronomer, philosopher and physician, was born here. The mothers of Hafiz and Saadi, the great Persian poets, were also from Kazerun. In the first half of the 19th century, Mirza Saleh Shirazi, the first Iranian reporter, was born in the city. Kazerun is often called the Green City, for the country around it abounds in splendid oak forests. The Arjan reserve is located 25 kilometers east of the city. In Kazerun itself, the main attractions are the Tange-Tikab cave and the tomb of the Sufi sheikh Abu Yitzhak Kazeruni, one of the greatest Persian mystics. 19 kilometers north of Kazerun are the ruins of Bishapur, an ancient city, founded in 266 AD by King Shapur I as the new capital of the Sassanid Empire. Near Bishapur are also the ruins of the Maiden’s Castle, reliefs of the Sassanid era and a cave with a statue of King Shapur I – the ruler of the Sassanid Empire in 240-270 AD. 35 kilometers south of Kazerun is the Sar-Mashhad burial mound, an archaeological monument of the Sassanid times. Next to it you can see the relief of Nakshe-Bahram, belonging to the same era.
The village of Chak-Chak(“kap-kap” in Farsi), also known as “Pire-Sabz”, is the most sacred of the mountain temples of the Zoroastrians. This village, located near the city of Ardakan in the province of Yazd, is a green ledge under an overhanging rock that overlooks the desert of central Iran. For deeply religious Zoroastrians, Chak-Chak serves as a place of pilgrimage. Every year, on June 14-18, thousands of adherents of Zoroastrianism from Iran, India and other countries flock to the fire temple in Pire-Sabz. According to tradition, if pilgrims use any means of transport, they should stop as soon as they notice the temple from afar, and walk the rest of the way. According to Zoroastrian beliefs, Chak-Chak is located at the very place where in 640 AD. The Arab army invading Iran surrounded Nikbana, the second daughter of the last pre-Islamic ruler of Persia (Sassanid Empire), Yazdegerd III. Fearing captivity, Nikbanu prayed that Ahura Mazda would protect her from her enemies. In response to Nikban’s prayer, the mountain miraculously opened its stone slopes and protected the girl from the invaders. One of the amazing miracles of Chak-Chak is a mountain spring, from which water constantly flows drop by drop. According to legend, these are the tears of sadness that the mountain sheds in memory of Nikban. An ancient, huge tree that grew next to the holy spring is believed to have appeared from the cane of Nikbanu. The Chak-Chak temple itself is an artificially hollowed out grotto, with two large bronze doors. Inside, the floors of the sanctuary are lined with marble, and its walls have darkened from the flames of fires constantly maintained in the temple.
Jolfa (Julfa) is a city in the north-west of Iran in the province of East Azerbaijan, located on the border with the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. The administrative center of Shahrestan is Julfa. Population – approx. 6 thousand people Julfa is the most important trading hub in Transcaucasia.
The city is located on the right bank of the Araks and is connected by a railway bridge with the Azerbaijani city of the same name on the opposite bank. Thus, the Iranian railways are connected to the Nakhichevan-Horadiz branch, which makes possible the railway communication with Azerbaijan. In Soviet times, the entire cargo turnover of Iran with the USSR, Eastern Europe and Scandinavia passed through Julfa.