The total spending on R&D in Germany amounted to 49.8 billion euros in 2000 (11.6% more than in 1998). At the same time, funds from public sources increased by 2.3% to 15.9 billion euros, but the state’s share has been constantly declining since 1996. The share of private business increased from 60.8% in 1996 to 65.5% in 2000 (32.7 billion euros). R&D spending is 2.3-2.4% of GDP.
The main organizations in the field of scientific research are the German Research Society, the Society. Max Planck (21 Institutes), Society. Fraunhofer (19 institutes and branches), and others receive financial resources from both federal and land sources.
However, the main financial source for scientific research in Germany, as in other Western European countries, is private business. In 2000, firms accounted for 2/3 of all R&D spending in Germany. In recent years, firms are increasingly implementing research projects not independently, but with partners from both business and science: if 15 years ago, financing of external orders for R&D accounted for about 9% of the corresponding costs of firms, now more than 14%. Moreover, this trend is especially pronounced in large companies. At the same time, only 1/6 of all firms’ R&D expenses go directly to scientific institutions. This is even somewhat less than the foreign orders of the German business. Nevertheless, orders to universities are growing, and their volume has doubled over the past 10 years.
An important source of funding for scientific research is the activity of foundations, whose resources are formed from private sources. The state creates favorable conditions for funds, in particular, stimulating them with the help of tax incentives. Only the Union of Funds for the Promotion of German Science includes 307 funds financed by business. Moreover, this union does not include many large and independent foundations, such as the Volkswagen Foundation, the Robert Bosch Foundation, the Bertelsmann Foundation, the Körber Foundation, and others. 11 foundations are funded from the federal budget and are aimed at providing scholarships for students and doctoral students.
The role of R&D financing within the EU is steadily increasing, but still remains small. The EU 5th Framework Program for R&D (1999-2003) has a total budget of approx. 15 billion euros. Germany annually receives approx. 670 million euros, which is only 4% of public funding for R&D. However, for certain areas this share is significantly higher (biotechnology – 10%, information technology – 20%).
According to andyeducation, Germany has a multi-stage school system with different types of educational institutions. In the 2001/02 academic year, there were 41,441 general education schools (including 17,175 elementary schools, 3,465 real schools and 3,168 gymnasiums). In addition, there are 9,755 vocational schools. In order to be able to enter a university or other higher education, a third degree certificate of education is required, which requires studying for 13 (sometimes 12) years and passing exams.
Germany is a country with deep university traditions. The oldest German university, Heidelberg, was founded in 1386. The largest universities are Munich, Berlin, Cologne, and others. 99 universities. The reform of the higher education system is currently under way.
Germany is a country of great culture with powerful roots. The names of G. Schutz, J.S. Bach, R. Wagner, I. Brahms, F. Mendelssohn-Bartholdy and others are in music, A. Durer, L. Cranach, T. Riemenschneider, E. L. Kirchner and others – in the fine arts, I.V. Goethe, F. Schiller, G. Heine, E.T.A. world culture.
Modern Germany is characterized by diversity and wide dissemination of culture. There is no centralization of cultural life and cultural values in one or several cities – they are dispersed literally throughout the country: along with the famous Berlin, Munich, Weimar, Dresden or Cologne, there are many small, not so widely known, but culturally significant places: der Tauber, Naumburg, Bayreuth, Celle, Wittenberg, Schleswig, etc. In 1999 there were 4,570 museums, and the number is growing. They receive almost 100 million visits per year. The most famous museums are the Dresden Art Gallery, the Old and New Pinakotheks in Munich, the Deutsches Museum in Munich, the Historical Museum in Berlin and many others. There are also many palace museums (the most famous is Sanssouci in Potsdam) and castle museums.
The theater is no less loved in Germany: in the 1999/2000 season there were 6.1 million visits to operas and ballets, 5.6 million to drama performances, 3 million to operettas and musicals, and 1.2 million to concerts. There are more than 1000 scientific and more than 11.3 thousand public libraries in the country. From 50 to 75 films are shot annually (including co-production). R.V. Fasbinder and F. Schlöndorff are world-class directors.
If there was almost no one to support composer traditions in Germany (only K. Orff and K. H. Stockhausen can be named), and installations (J. Beuys and his followers) and abstract art dominated in the visual arts, then the development of literature in post-war Germany turned out to be more significant. Such major writers as G. Böll, G. Grass, Z. Lenz, K. Wolf are world famous. It is impossible not to mention German philosophical literature, traditionally strong in Germany and influencing European and world cultural development (suffice it to name such philosophers of past centuries as I. Kant, J.G. Fichte, G.W.F. Hegel, F.W. Schelling, A. Schopenhauer, F. Nietzsche and others). These traditions in Germany were supported by M. Heidegger, K. Jaspers, T. Adorno, M. Horkheimer, J. Habermas, H.-G. Gadamer. Great impact not only on professionals,
In 1999, 6.9 billion euros were spent on culture from the state and municipal budgets. Most of them (2.9 billion) were directed to support theaters, professional orchestras and choirs, other musical groups and holding musical events.