According to Educationvv, Turkish schoolchildren receive primary education after the first 5 years of education. Secondary education is two-stage. Secondary education of the first level is obtained after 3 years of study in secondary school. In 1997, compulsory free eight-year continuous education was introduced. Previously, competitive examinations were held during the transition from primary to secondary school, but education in secondary school was then free. Obtaining the second stage is carried out on the basis of a lyceum, paid education in which lasts 3-4 years. Lyceum programs pay special attention to the study of foreign languages. Higher education is provided by studying at universities on the basis of 12 years of education. Higher education is paid. In con. 1990s there were 69 universities in Turkey, incl. 18 private. There are multidisciplinary universities (Istanbul, Ankara, Aegean), specialized, for example, technical, provincial (regional and local). Scientific activity is carried out on the basis of universities, as well as the Society for Culture, Linguistics and History. Ataturk, created in 1983 under the Council of Ministers.
Of the areas of Turkish culture, literature has received the most development, especially Turkish postmodernism, whose representatives, for example, Orhan Pamuk, are widely known in Europe.
The development of the Turkish theater was facilitated by the mass emergence of private theaters in the 1960s.
Visual arts are developing mainly within the framework of the concept of “Modern Turkish Art”, which is based on the synthesis of the cultural values of East and West, past and present. The abstract art of contemporary Turkish artists, such as Adnan Choker, Lutfu Gunay, and Shemsi Arel, reached its peak.
General information about Turkey
The official name is the Republic of Turkey (Turkiye Cumhuriyeti, Republic of Turkey). It is located at the junction of two continents: out of the total area of the country, which is 783,577 km2, 759,752 km2 (97% of the territory) is located in Asia and 23,825 km2 (3%) is located in Europe (the Asian part of the country is called Anatolia in Turkey, and the European part is Thrace). The population is 67.3 million people. (2002 estimate). The official language is Turkish. The capital is Ankara (3.8 million people, 1999). Public holidays:
- New Year on January 1;
- National Sovereignty Day and Children’s Day on 23 April;
- Youth and Sports Day on May 19;
- Victory Day August 30;
- Republic Day on October 29, religious holidays are also celebrated – Ramadan and Kurban, the dates of which are determined annually according to the lunar calendar.
The monetary unit is the Turkish lira.
Member of the UN (since 1945, founding country), IMF (since 1947), Council of Europe (since 1949), NATO (since 1952), OECD (since 1960), EU (associate member status since 1963, EU candidate status since 1999), the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (since 1992), the Organization for Economic Cooperation (since 1985), etc.
Average annual population growth rate in the 1990s decreased to 1.1% against 2% in the 1980s. Birth rate 17.95%, mortality 5.95%, infant mortality 38.7 people. per 1000 newborns (2002).
The gender structure of the population is characterized by a steady predominance of the number of men over the number of women, the ratio of the first to the second in 2001 was 101.9%. A distinctive feature of the age structure is the high proportion of people of pre-working age (0-14 years), which amounted to con. 1990s slightly less than 30%. However, this figure is gradually decreasing. Relatively low, despite the increase in average life expectancy to 71.5 years (2002), remains the proportion of people of post-working age (65 years and older) – 5.5%. To con. 20th century OK. 74% of Turkey’s population lived in cities.
Until recently, the basis for receiving a pension from state social insurance organizations was the number of years worked, which is 20 for women and 25 for men. The absence of the concept of a minimum retirement age made it possible for people aged 38/43 to receive a pension. All this led to a rapid increase in the number of pensioners of a relatively young age. Currently, Turkey is undergoing a social insurance reform, which provides for the introduction of a minimum retirement age that is the same for men and women and is 62 years old.
In con. 1990s in Turkey, the illiteracy rate of the adult population (15 years and older) remained quite high – 16%. Enrollment in primary education was 85%, secondary education 50%, and higher education 21% (1999).
Determining the ethnic composition of the population presents a certain difficulty. Thus, since 1970, the data of population censuses do not contain relevant information. According to various estimates, 15-18 million Kurds, Arabs, Armenians, Georgians, Lazi, Jews live in Turkey along with the Turks, who make up the majority.
The official language is Turkish. However, there are Armenian schools and periodicals in Armenian. In 2002, the country’s parliament adopted a package of “key democratic reforms” that included, among other measures, allowing broadcasting and education in the Kurdish language and expanding the rights of the non-Muslim population.
By religion, ca. 99% of the population are Muslims (mostly Sunnis), just over 1% profess Christianity and Judaism.