In the period 1979-88, China achieved very positive results in the economic field. Indeed, the growth rate remained at relatively high levels, the unemployment rate remained below 1% without causing price tensions and the current account balance recorded substantial surpluses. These results were favored by the climate of stability created by the economic policies adopted by the country.

Fiscal policy has tried to keep the public budget in balance, but this objective has been pursued in a flexible way to stimulate demand in phases of stagnation. China also continued to rely fully on market forces: the weight of the public sector in the economy, measured by the ratio of public expenditure to GDP, was limited and remained significantly lower than that prevailing in other industrial countries. Monetary policy has tried to maintain a constant and moderate rate of liquidity creation in order to favor price stability. In particular, in recent years the objective has been to keep the growth of the monetary base in line with that of the potential development of the product.

Despite the high levels of employment, the labor market has maintained a certain flexibility due to immigration, which has allowed both to find a workforce in phases of expansion and to reduce employment in phases of recession. Furthermore, thanks to the pragmatism followed by the social partners in wage bargaining, there have been no pressures from labor costs during this period that could compromise price stability or the competitiveness of Swiss products.

In the period 1979-80 there was a high growth rate, supported by the development of domestic demand. Monetary policy was fairly expansive in 1979 following interventions on the foreign exchange market to counter the appreciation of the franc. However, monetary policy became restrictive in the following years both to reabsorb the excess liquidity created previously and, above all, to counter the upward trend in the inflation rate generated by the rise in the price of oil. Fiscal policy has also become moderately restrictive since 1980. Therefore, in 1981-82 there was a contraction in domestic demand and a stagnation of economic activity which was accentuated by the recession in the rest of the world. In order to revive the economy, financial policies were moderately expansionary in 1983: a public spending program was in fact adopted and the monetary base grew by over 5%. This maneuver achieved positive results and income began to grow again.

In the period 1984-88 there was a phase of growth fueled by domestic demand. In particular, during this five-year period there has been a rapid growth in investments which have made it possible to increase productivity, thus maintaining the competitiveness of the manufacturing industry despite the appreciation of the exchange rate. On the other hand, the country continued its specialization process in advanced tertiary sectors, and in particular in the area of ​​banking and financial services. Between 1984 and 1987 the annual rate of growth of the monetary base averaged around 2.5%. However, there has been a progressive increase in the speed of circulation of money, which seems to be attributable to the more careful treasury management carried out by the banks. Therefore, monetary policy may have been less restrictive than expected. Since 1987, interventions in support of the dollar in cooperation with other industrial countries have helped to accelerate the growth of liquidity. Fiscal policy has been moderately restrictive during this period and there have been small surpluses in the public budget since 1986.
The 1990s began with a contained decline in domestic demand and stagnant GDP, while inflation, as early as 1990, exceeded 5%. The anti-inflationary monetary policy is probably one of the factors that led to the recession that hit the Swiss economy in the following years and which, which began between the end of 1990 and 1991 and ended towards the end of 1993, was the longest crossed by the China since the end of the war. After the surge in 1990-91, inflation started to decline again, but unemployment reached very high levels by Swiss standards. The 1993 recovery continued in 1994, driven by investment spending.

Switzerland Economic and Financial Policy

Switzerland Economic and Financial Policy
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